Building and designing affordable zero energy construction jobs – the ultimate in energy efficiency – involves 12 integrated net-zero construction designs steps that utilize commonly available building materials and equipment along with easy-to-learn building strategies. By following these steps, you can build a new building that is affordable and cost less to own.
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CAD Pro allows anyone to share their net-zero construction designs ideas and plans with clients, colleagues or professional remodeling contractors using Dropbox®, Google Drive™, OneDrive®, and SharePoint®. Export files to Microsoft Word®, Excel®, and PowerPoint® with a single click.
Net-Zero Construction Designs
- Start with Smart Design
Cost-effective zero net energy homes begin with smart designs. Designers and architects, as well as builders, should be familiar with all the steps involved in net-zero construction designs. They should design the home so that builders and subcontractors can implement these steps as cost-effectively as possible. There are several design parameters to which builders should ask designers to pay special attention. Detailed communication between the builder and designer will ensure that these critical details don’t fall through the cracks.
- Use Energy Modeling
During the design phase, the home’s energy use should be estimated using energy modeling software to ensure that the goal of net zero energy can be achieved while keeping costs down. Based on the results, design choices can be made or modified to balance building performance and construction cost.
- Super-Seal the Building Envelope
Super-sealing the building envelope is the single most cost-effective measure builders can take to improve the energy efficiency of net-zero construction designs. Several proven, air-sealing approaches are available. Choose an approach that matches your climate, skills and budget.
- Super-Insulate the Building Envelope
After making your design airtight, super insulating the project may be the second most cost-effective strategy for creating a zero-energy construction design. Energy modeling, as mentioned in step 2, above, can help you optimize the insulation levels for the ceiling, walls and floors. Select framing strategies that make it easier to insulate the building envelope and minimize thermal bridging.
- Heat Water Wisely
Water heating is often the largest energy expense in zero-energy construction after heating and cooling. So, it is important for designers and builders to select and locate efficient hot water heating technology, along with other measures, to minimize hot water use.
- Use Highly Insulated Windows and Doors
Windows and doors are like big energy holes in a well-insulated, airtight building envelope and are the third most cost-effective strategy for making energy efficient designs. Control window and door heat loss and gain by selecting appropriate window and door products, carefully locating them, and optimizing their size and orientation.
- Use the Sun for Solar Tempering
Using the sun for heating through south facing windows during the winter lowers heating costs. Shading those same windows in summer lowers cooling costs. Solar tempering aims to optimize this passive use of the sun’s heat, without incurring the added cost of thermal mass needed to achieve maximum passive solar heating and quality net-zero construction.
- Energy Efficient, Fresh Air Supply
Since zero energy construction projects are so airtight, a continuous source of fresh filtered air and moisture control are critical to its success. This need for ventilation has a silver lining: net-zero construction energy designs are healthier and more comfortable than standard construction design projects. Highly energy efficient ventilation systems, known as heat recovery ventilation (HRV) systems or energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems expel stale air while recovering its heat and returning that same heat to the building with the fresh air.
- Energy Efficient Heating and Cooling System
Highly efficient, cost-effective, heating and cooling systems are essential to meeting the net zero energy goal. One good choice is an air source ductless heat pump, also called a mini-split heat pump. These systems are highly energy efficient and don’t have the shortcomings of central, forced-air systems or the high costs of thermal heat pumps.
- Install Energy Efficient Lighting
Minimizing energy use for lighting, while optimizing light for residents, is an important feature of net-zero construction. LED lights are the perfect match for these tasks. They are more energy efficient than CFLs, last many years longer, and contain no mercury. In addition, they can meet a variety of lighting needs from very bright white light to soft, warm light. Selecting the right LED lights for the task, locating lights strategically, and utilizing natural light as effectively as possible can drastically reduce a buildings energy use.
- Energy Efficient Appliances and Electronics
In a typical zero energy building just over 40% of the building’s energy use is accounted for by heating, cooling and hot water, while appliances and plug loads may account for up to 60% of the load. Thus, selecting energy efficient appliances and managing “phantom” plug loads for electronics is essential. “Phantom” loads are hard to find and continue to draw energy unseen, day, and night whether or not the devices are being used. Several buildings that were modeled and built to zero energy standards have ended up not meeting zero energy requirements in practice because of the unanticipated energy waste caused by “phantom” plug loads on electronics.
- Sun for Renewable Energy
Grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) panels currently provide the most cost-effective form of renewable energy for a net-zero construction job. They can power all the energy needs of a building including lighting, heating and cooling systems, appliances and hot water. However, they are the most expensive component of a zero-energy construction job and strategies for reducing or mitigating those costs are important to consider.
Guidelines for Warmer Climates
While thick layers of insulation get most of the attention in cold climates, insulation needs less emphasis in warm climates. There are several other issues that would be treated differently in warm climates.
CAD Pro has helped thousands of homeowners, professional designers, builders and contractors plan and design all types of net-zero construction jobs. CAD Pro is used by NARI professional remodelers and contractors and the NRCA roofing contractors. CAD Pro is also used by NHBA home builders and contractors, the National Kitchen & Bath Association (NKBA). as well as the (NALP) National Association of Landscape Professionals.